Why why is very important and use world wide nowadays due to its importance and easyness. It is simplest type of analysis techniques with which we can resolve the issues from simple problems to chronic problems by following easy steps.

Firstly why-why analysis was started and used by Toyota in TPS Toyota production systems later on the passage of time and application it is used by other organisations and in today world used for solving and identifying root cause of their chronic issues.

IATF 16949 is also recommend for using of Why why analysis to solve problems as mentioned in clause 10.2.3.

Today we are going to discuss on this topic because of its importance. Topic we will cover below mentioned contents one by one.

Content table

  • Why whys introduction:
  • Origins of the Why Whys Technique
  • What is Lean methodology?
  • Why why analysis and Lean:
  • Toyota Production System
  • Why why analysis & Toyota Production System
  • How to start why-why analysis-
  • Team formation for why-why analysis-
  • Define the problem for why-why analysis:
  • Start why why analysis:
  • It time take action:
  • When to Stop ask why why
  • Cautions for Why why analysis:
  • When to Use a 5Why Analysis
  • Difference between other analysis and why why analysis-
  • Sequence for asking questioning in Why Why analysis-
  • The Advantages of using Why-Why analysis
  1. Let’s discuss above mentioned contents one by one in brief.

Why why analysis introduction:

It is a technique to find out root cause for the problem. It is not complete itself but it’s a portion of analysis methodology. Why why analysis

Just like we can say that it is Heart of a problem solving methodology because this step comes mid of any problem solving method. So it’s vital to do why-why analysis carefully with focus.

It is a technique to find out root cause for the problem. It is not complete itself but it’s a portion of analysis methodology. Why why analysis.

Why why analysis play vital role in decision making and to identify the real cause of problem which may be technical etc.

Its worldwide acceptability methodology for analysis.

Case study with why why analysis

One potential case study for a Why-Why Analysis could be a manufacturing plant that experienced a sudden increase in defects in their products.

  1. The first why question to ask would be: Why are there more defects in the products? The answer might be that the machines used in production are malfunctioning.
  2. Next, the question becomes: Why are the machines malfunctioning? The answer may be that they have not been properly maintained or that they are old and need to be replaced.
  3. Continuing with the Why-Why Analysis, the next question would be: Why have the machines not been properly maintained? The answer could be that the maintenance team is understaffed or that they are not properly trained to maintain the specific machines.
  4. Finally, the last why question to ask would be: Why is the maintenance team understaffed or not properly trained? The answer might be that the company is trying to cut costs or that they have not invested enough in training their employees.

By conducting a Why-Why Analysis, the manufacturing plant can identify the root cause of the increase in defects and take steps to address the underlying issues

Origins of the 5Why aTechnique:

The term Why Why was introduced by Sakichi Toyoda, founder of Toyota Industries & inventor, Developed in 1930s. The popularity of Why why analysis was comes in light during 1970 and it is used worldwide by many organization to solve the problem.

The method is very simple to use with teams by asking why why until reach on real cause.

Why why analysis

What is Lean methodology?

It is defined as a methodology used to improve the process with use of tools and techniques. It is used in manufacturing or service industries to improve the process.

Lean manufacturing is a methodology which focuses on waste minimization in manufacturing systems and to maximize productivity.

The waste which we taking is that for which customer is not willing to pay or that don’t add value in our business.

This is used worldwide, it is focus on mainly 8 types of waste. Which is abbreviated as DOWNTIME.

This approach is familiar with Toyota Production system which also focus on waste reduction.

Lean is based on some principle namely kaizen, continuous improvement.

This is focus on organization to understand the cost which customer is not willing to pay but which his present in manufacturing system. So Lean helps to identify and eliminate this cost and relevant causes so that organization can build profit and world class quality product for customer.

In today world it is necessary for organization to review their processes and take initiatives to improve them and convert losses into profits.

In current scenario organization are not using only lean but also use it with Six sigma. Six sigma is focus on reduction of process variation and Lean is focus on speed of manufacturing system. When these both are used jointly it helps to build a process with minimal process variation and high productivity.

Why why analysis (5why analysis and Lean:

Lean and Why Why analysis are both having relation because Why why is also utilize to solve the problem identified for improvement and analysis is carried out with why why approach. Because the root cause analysis is common in Lean to reach on decision and identify the actions for improvement.

Toyota Production System :

TPS is a production system which is created based on the philosophy of achieving ultimate quality level by elimination of all waste in existing system.

Why why analysis 5 whys & Toyota Production System:

TPS is developed by Sakichi Toyoda in Toyota, a Japanese inventor and industrialist, the technique named TPS became an integral part of the Lean philosophy which is accepted worldwide. The Why- Why is also a part of TPS because the basic concept of TPS is to do why why for identify the root cause?

One of the key step to achieve goals it to make effective decision which is led by effective analysis. So if we are not dong analysis is effectively we can’t achieve our defined goals.

It means we have to make decision only on proper analysis

So that why why analysis play vital role in decision making and to identify the real cause of problem which may be technical etc.

How to start why why why analysis-

We know Why why why analysis play vital role in decision making.

It is a technique to find out root cause for the problem. It is not complete itself but it’s a portion of analysis methodology. Why why analysis

so when we going to start why why analysis we have to comply follow key steps to effectively implementation of Why-Why analysis.

Why why analysis


Team formation for why-why analysis-(5why analysis)

Select technically sound people from different different process basis on that hey are at expert level in their respected area.

This expertise of the people gives valuable inputs for analysis. Because why why analysis is not an individual activity it is joint activity.

Define the problem for why why why analysis( 5why analysis):

In this discuss the issue with team formed to make a clear statement of problem so that it can resolve effectively.

Because it’s very important to defined the problem first because there is a quote that if we define problem effectively we resolve the problem 50%. So its show the vitality of problem definition.

This step play important roles in analysis methodology because without define problem clearly it is difficult to proceed for analysis.

In last section of article you will get Why Why analysis example.


Start why why why analysis:

After defining the probe not it’s time to ask why why to team formed. And the answer of team to be recorded and cross verified with actual fact and data. Because to reach root cause it’s necessary to do analysis with facts and data not on the perceptions.

Asking why why need to keep continue until not reached on real root cause.

Why why why analysis

It time take action:

After reaching on real root cause, its time decide action for control over problem. Take feedback from team on action decide and assign responsibility to implement these action in respective areas to prevent recurring problems.

After certain duration start monitoring effectiveness of action decided. And do horizontal deployment of actions based on status.

It is very important to decide effective action with respect to identified root causes. And cause should be validated for identifying the actions. Cause should be validated with cause and effects. We have to check that if  cause is present and affects should be there. And if cause is absent then effect must be absent there because if there is no any relation between cause and effects than it is totally wastage to decide actions against root causes. identified action should be discussed with CFT prior to finalization so that the cross linkage of actions can be checked.

When to Stop ask why why:

As we know in this methodology leader ask why why which can be no longer as long he wants but that Detroit the purpose of why why analysis.

So leader have to know when he has to stop asking why why to team.s

Team has to stop doing why why analysis when they feel that this is the actual root cause for problem and based on that good if they are able to simulate presence of cause versus effect so that they can stop asking why why analysis and start work on identified cause.

Leader have to stop when observed that a valuable root cause is reached and there is no need to proceed further.

In case of multiple root causes leader need to use cause and effects matrix to eliminate unrelated causes.

What is this A3 report?

This is the first thing which is very important to know that what is A3 before proceeding to next step related to how to fill A3.

A3 is basically a problem solving methodology to solve the any problem and guide to move towards the improvement.

The term A3 was originated from Toyota by a lean manufacturing practitioners, basically it helps to diagnoses the situation so that we can focus on your problems and not just on its symptoms.

Let us understand more clear about “what is A3 “and how easily we can make an A3 report

Cautions for Why why why analysis:

It’s very important to keep questions in mind using why why methodology. Because as usual when we are doing something at that time we have to keep in mind what we no need to do which causes adverse effect of that particular task for activity

  • Stop asking why why after reach on real root cause
  • Don’t ask too many why why
  • Avoid irrespective answers during asking why why
  • Avoid conflicts during asking why why analysis
  • Validate if there is more than one root cause
  • Cross check with cause effect matrix to eliminate multiple root causes

When to Use a 5Why Analysis :

We can use why why analysis to resolve any kind of problem but it will worthy if we use it as per complexity of problems so that the time consuming to use it in normal problem can be avoid.

We have to use why why analysis when we have a problem which is not easy to solve with normal analysis methodology and this problem complexities it means it is critical to solve with the help of normal analysis then we have to go for why why analysis the help of CFT members.

No need to do analysis with why why analysis methodology for each and every problems without identifying or understanding the complexity of the problems.

Because it is totally wastage of time if we use Why why analysis to find out solution for each and every problems solution.

To understand why why why analysis with help of example please read complete article in the end you will get Why why analysis example.

Difference between other analysis and why why why analysis

The major difference between other analysis and why why why analysis-

If we discuss about difference between other analysis technique and Why-Why is are mentioned below:

  • It can use in complex problems
  • It is easy to do
  • No much more complexity to conduct Why-Why analysis
  • It help to drill down to the root cause of a problem
  • It open ways to find multiple root causes if available.
  • It start with ask simple Why no any tough strategy required.
  • It can use in any section such that problem solving, continual improvement. Target setting etc.

Sequence for asking questioning in Why Why why analysis-

When start why why analysis the leader need to keep in mind the proper sequence of question difficulty level. If leader not follow the defined sequence that than probability of analysis deviate from track are more.

Below is defined sequence of questioning in Why- why analysis-

  • Simple problem questions
  • Moderately Problem questions
  • Difficult problems question

The Advantages of using Why-Why analysis:

  • It helps to identify root cause of problem
  • It is easy to conduct analysis with this approach
  • It help to determine relation of root cause with problem
  • It makes analysis process simply
  • Real time validation of root cause Benefits of Five Use world-wide for analysis
  • Trust worthy analysis technique
While using why why analysis it is essential to consider one of the important factors which is Human factor.
Human Factors are the factors which underlying reasons behind the error created by human errors. It related to capabilities, limitations, and behavior of human relevant to the tools, machines, process, systems, tasks, jobs, and surrounding environments to increasing performance of human, Awareness level of human help to eliminate error where possible and help to reduce the risk of human error and make process cost effectives.
Four factor principle for human error
  • Zero Accidents
  • Incident Reporting
  • Managing Human Factors
  • Safe Execution of task
Similarly in quality
  • Zero Defects
  • Abnormality / Non-Conformance Reporting
  • Managing Human Factors
  • Correct Execution of task.
To control the human error first it is necessary to know why this happen, what are top reason behind the human error.
Top reason for human error as per study mentioned below:
Ergonomics • Equipment • Culture • Competence • Environmental • Feelings
The error created by human can be categories in 3 types
Skill-Based Errors: this error introduced due to gap skill which is required to perform a specific take and in competent person assign to task without training.
Decision Errors: this is type of error which introduced due to decision on results. When a person not able to judge the defect during inspection and he is not able to give judgement on the parts at that time this type of error introduced.
Perceptual Errors:  this error introduced when an employee’s sensory input is degraded or not perform perfectly, and a decision is made based upon faulty information received or collected.
Problem definition
When we going to solve the problem, it is important to know clearly about the problem. This is also known as define the problem, or we can call it problem definition. The process of define the problem is not so easy as looking there are few steps need to follow to define problem effectively.
First and the most important step is to collect all available data related to problem which is reported.
To define problem effectively the approach used worldwide e.g., 5W2H. This approach is very important and easy to use. Usually it is very valuable to start with the voice of the customer, which often consists of a mixture of facts, opinions, and emotions.
Next step is related to extraction of customer complaint received from customer in a descriptive way. This can be done effectively with use of a table collecting all stakeholder (e.g., internal/external customer) perspectives e.g., “Voice of customer Analysis”.
Identification of Possible sources of data or information can be e.g.: photos, videos, measurement reports, test reports.
Next step is to described problem as closely as possible with facts and available data in all dimensions of the 5W2H.
Use 5W2H to determine the extent of problem related to place, time, quantity, number of affected components, versions, vehicles, customer sites, another site etc.).
It is most important to know and check weather the problem is related to safety or not and same need to communicate to interested party.
Management of experience and lessons learned from the problem. It is usually the collection of relatively past data related to concern received from customer. It is very important to compile the data related to past failures in common depository so that it can retrieved as and when needed. Next step is to utilize this data for furthers improvement.
It is necessary to ensure implementation of action against concern received.
This collected data can be used to train the peoples about defects
This data can be used to identify the potential failures which can correlate with the failures.
It will help to resolve the issue quickly in case of same issue received.
This data can be utilized for deep analysis and identification of action to overcome the failures.
Later in this article we will discuss about Why why analysis example in detail.
How to use past trouble data:
The collected data is depository of organization, which they can use at the time of
  • Designing new product
  • At the time of new project initiation
  • Use at the time of employee induction
  • During internal review related to process /product
  • Analysis of similar problem/ issues.
Do’s for for why why analysis/ problem solving:
  • Talk with data by visit the place where problem happened, use of Gemba walk
  • Take time to understand the team
  • Define goal clearly for the team
  • Set up process of working
  • Preparation of action plan
  • Proper tracking of action as per plan
Don’ts for why why analysis/ problem solving:
  • Early set up of target
  • Figure point to someone
  • Reach conclusion without analysis
  • Do everything without support of others
  • Action identification without analysis
  • Not monitoring of actions
  • Not to trust on team
Why why analysis example:
Problem leakage I drain pipe
Why 1-Leakage in drainpipe
Why 2- Drain pipe was got damage
Why 3- Life of drain pipe over
Why 4- Drain pipe life monitoring not done
Why 5- System for life monitoring of equipment and spare not defined
Root cause is: System for spare and equipment’s life monitoring not defined which causes failure occurred.
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